One of the most controversial passages in the whole of the New Testament is what Paul has to say in Philippians 2:5-11, in which he talks of the Messiah, Yahushua, as existing of the "form" of God, but taking on the "form" of a slave, in the "likeness" of a human being.
The most interesting of the statements is that in Philippians 2:11, which is usually translated as "And every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father."
In the oldest manuscripts of the Renewed Covenant, there are what's known as the nomina sacra
(see the introduction page to TWTY translation of the Renewed Covenant here
), and a significant, shall we say, muddening of how one is to interpret the specific nomen sacrum ΚΣ
(and its other forms of course), which can in contexts either refer to both Yahweh and Yahushua as "Master" or "Sovereign Master", or in many cases (especially anarthrous; that is, lacking a definite article the
) is a direct reference to Yahweh, and not just a title.
One of these I would say is in Philippians 2:11, where unfortunately in P46 we don't have the entire verse extant, but in Codex Sinaiticus we do. The main phrase is ΚΣ ΙΣ ΧΣ
, which rather than meaning "Yahushua Messiah [is] Sovereign Master", should be "Messiah Yahushua is
As the nomen sacrum ΚΣ
has no definite article (ο = Greek "the"), there is no reason to think that this is being used as a placement for the title, but rather a direct reference to Yahweh.
Image 1: Full page from P(apyrus) 46
Image 2: Philippians 2:5-11 highlighted in P46 (verse 11 in colour blue), with following transcription.
Image 3: Philippians 2:11 in Codex Sinaiticus
τουτο γαρ φρονειτε
εν ημειν ο και εν ΧΡΩ ΙΗΥ
ος εν μορφη ΘΥ
υπαρχων ουχ αρπαγμον ηγησατο ειναι
αλλα εαυτον εκενως εν μορφην
δουλου λαβων εν ομοιωματι ανθρωπου
γενομενος και σχηματι ευρεθεις ως αν
θρωπος εταπεινωσεν εαυτον γενομενος
υπηκοος μεχρι θανατου
θανατου δε ΣΤΡΟΥ
διο και ο ΘΣ
αυτον υπερυψωσεν και εχαρισα
[τ]ο αυτω το ονομα το υπερ παν ονομα ινα
[ε]ν τω ονοματι ΙΗΥ
παν γονυ καμψη επου
[ρα]νιων και επιγειων και καταχθονιων
[κα]ι πασα γλωσσα εξομολγησηται οτι
[ΚΣ Ι]ΗΣ ΧΡΣ εις δοξαν ΘΥ ΠΡΣ