There appears to be (I think) two interpretations of what this Parable is being in reference to:
1) The Tribulation, and the bridesmaids representing two different types of people in it;
2) The paralambano/harpazo/harvest/rapture, and the bridesmaids representing the two types of believers at said event.
Usually I find, especially in the book of MattithYah, is that the surrounding circumstances to a few verses gives occasion as to why the parable is being spoken.
In this case, right before the parable of the 10 Virgins, there is Yahushua's discussion of the paralambano/harpazo/harvest/rapture (24:36-44). We then get the bridesmaids parable (25:1-13), followed by the Talents parable (25:14-30), and then Yahushua's description of the final separation (25:31-46).
The fact that we have these two parables (bridesmaids/Talents) between these two different events, I have to wonder whether this is done on purpose, as both parables are in fact speaking of both
events - paralambano and separation - with both events not actually being that far from each other in Yahuweh's intent - to separate the good from the bad.
Just some late night musings on the subject
Feel free to correct me if I misunderstood people's interpretations of the parable - it wouldn't be the first time!